Feed additives refer to small or trace substances added in the process of feed production, processing and use. The amount of feed additives is small but the effect is significant. Feed additives are inevitable raw materials used in the modern feed industry, and have obvious effects on strengthening the nutritional value of basic feeds, improving animal production performance, ensuring animal health, saving feed costs, and improving the quality of animal products.
Introduction of feed additives
Feed additives are divided into microbial feed additives and Chinese herbal medicine feed additives. Among them, the microbial feed additive is a microbial product that replaces or balances one or more bacterial systems in animal ecosystems.
Main type of feed additives
1. Bile acid
Longchang bile acid is the main active ingredient of bile. In the circulation of liver and intestines, it combines with fatty acids, emulsifies fats, and forms fat-soluble complexes with fatty acids, allowing fatty acids to be absorbed through the membrane. Digestion and absorption have been completed. All biochemical reactions in the body, especially enzymatic reactions, are carried out in an aqueous solution, so the fat can only enter the fatty acid digestion process if it is emulsified and forms a fatty acid-emulsifier complex. Because the hepatointestinal circulation is not a completely closed circulation, the lack of endogenous emulsifier secretion becomes the biggest factor affecting the digestion and absorption of fat. Feed grade bile acid is a high-performance fat emulsifier. It can improve the activity of endogenous emulsifier, make up for the deficiency of endogenous emulsifier secretion, and thus release the potential energy of feed. It can promote the digestion and absorption of fat, protect the liver and gallbladder, improve the health of livestock and poultry, and increase the utilization rate of feed.
Including citric acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and compound acidifier, etc. Adding the right amount of acidification to the pig diet can significantly increase the daily weight gain of the pig and reduce the feeding cost.
3. Calcium formate
As a feed additive, calcium formate is particularly suitable for weaned piglets. It can affect the growth of intestinal microbes, activate pepsinogen, increase the energy utilization of natural metabolites, improve feed conversion rate, prevent diarrhea and diarrhea, and improve the survival rate of piglets. And the rate of daily weight gain. At the same time, feed grade calcium formate also has the effect of preventing mildew and keeping fresh. Adding calcium formate to the feed will release a small amount of formic acid in the animal body, which will reduce the PH value of the gastrointestinal tract, and has a buffering effect, which is conducive to the stability of the PH value in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby inhibiting the reproduction of harmful bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial microorganisms. For example, the growth of Lactobacillus can cover the intestinal mucosa from toxin invasion, so as to control and prevent the diarrhoea and diarrhea related to bacteria from occurring. The added amount is generally 1-1.5%. Calcium formate is used as an acidulant. Compared with citric acid, it does not deliquesce in the process of feed production. It has good fluidity and a neutral PH value. It does not cause equipment corrosion. Adding it directly to the feed can prevent nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. Destruction is an ideal feed acidifier.
Main Application of feed additives
The digestive tract of chickens is relatively short, and the intestinal mucosal barrier is fragile. Under intensive aquaculture conditions, it is more susceptible to harmful microorganisms than long digestive tract animals, resulting in various diseases. The use of feed additives is one of the effective means to prevent intestinal diseases and improve the production performance of broilers and laying hens. The growth rate of broilers is fast, and it is greatly affected by the environment in intensive production. The application of feed additives can improve the balance of intestinal flora, reduce the incidence and mortality of intestinal diseases, increase the weight of slaughter, reduce the ratio of feed to meat, and can reduce Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other harmful gas emissions in the chicken house improve product quality. The application of feed additives in laying hen breeding, in addition to preventing diseases, improving production performance and feed remuneration, also has an improving effect on egg quality. Studies have shown that adding feed additives to laying hen diets can increase the Hastelloy unit of the egg, reduce the cholesterol content of the egg, and has the effects of improving the thickness of the egg shell and reducing soft-shell eggs.
Current research and application shows that feed additives have achieved good application results in the breeding of piglets, sows and fattening pigs. Adding feed additives to piglet diets can promote piglet intestinal development, improve intestinal health, reduce diarrhea rate, increase piglet growth rate and feed conversion rate. For suckling piglets, the addition of feed additives helps to establish the predominant flora of probiotics; for weaned piglets, it can improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and growth inhibition due to factors such as their own digestive enzyme secretion and dietary antigenicity. Studies have shown that the use of feed additives in sow diets can improve intestinal health, improve sow immunity and reproductive performance. After adding feed additives, it can improve the ability to regulate the balance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, increase the intake of sows during lactation, suppress weight loss, increase the fat and protein content of sow milk, improve the survival rate of weaned piglets and weaned piglets body weight. Adding feed additives to fattening pig diets can increase feed intake and feed conversion rate, improve health, shorten fattening periods, and improve quality and reduce environmental pollution. Studies have shown that the addition of feed additives can reduce the diarrhea rate of fattening pigs, improve immunity, increase feed intake and feed digestibility, thereby improving diet utilization and reducing feed-to-meat ratio. In addition, feed additives have a certain promoting effect on increasing intramuscular fat and increasing the content of essential fatty acids, which can improve the quality of pork.
3. Aquatic products
The application of feed additives in aquatic products is reflected in two aspects: bait and water purification. Feed additives can improve the micro-ecological balance of aquatic animals, promote growth and development, play a role in preventing diseases and improving production performance. Probiotics can be colonized in the intestines of fish, promote the growth and development of fish, and improve disease resistance. Feed additives can reduce the incidence of shrimp and increase survival rate and yield. Feed additives can be used as immune stimulants and adjuvants for aquatic animals, promote the development of immune organs, improve humoral immunity, and improve immune function. This effect has been verified in a variety of aquatic animals. Photosynthetic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria in feed additives can consume organic matter in water, remove ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrous nitrogen, etc. It is an important beneficial microorganism currently used to improve the aquaculture environment. It is used in aquatic animals such as shrimp and flounder. Good application results are obtained in breeding.
The steel strand is a steel product composed of several steel wires. According to the needs, the galvanized layer, zinc aluminum alloy layer, aluminum coating, copper coating and epoxy resin coating can be added on the surface of carbon steel. Steel strand can be divided into: prestressed, unbonded, galvanized steel strand, etc. This paper only introduces the prestressed steel strand with the largest market circulation and consumption.
Structure and application of steel strand
Prestressed steel strand is a stranded steel cable composed of 2, 3, 7 or 19 high-strength steel wires, which has been stress relieved (stabilized). The main features are high strength and good relaxation performance. In addition, it is relatively straight when it is unfolded and suitable for prestressed concrete or similar purposes. It is widely used in infrastructure projects such as high-speed railway construction, expressway and national and provincial highway bridge. China’s prestressed steel strand industry originated in the 1960s, began to introduce western technology in 1988, and began to develop rapidly after 1995, mainly due to the sustained growth of China’s economy and the country’s policy of continuous investment in infrastructure. Now China has become the largest prestressed steel strand consumer market in the world.
Galvanized steel strand is usually used for messenger wire, guy wire, core wire or strength member, etc. it can also be used as earth wire / ground wire of overhead power transmission, barrier cable on both sides of highway or structural cable in building structure. The common prestressed steel strand in prestressed steel strand is uncoated steel strand for prestressed concrete, also galvanized, which is commonly used in bridge, construction, water conservancy, energy and geotechnical engineering, unbonded steel strand or monostrand is commonly used in floor and foundation engineering, etc.
The manufacturing process is divided into single wire manufacturing and stranded wire manufacturing. The (cold) drawing technology is used in the production of single wire. According to different materials of the product, it can be high carbon steel wire rod, stainless steel wire rod or medium and low carbon steel wire rod. If galvanizing is required, electroplating or hot plating shall be carried out on the single wire. In the process of strand manufacturing, multiple steel wires are twisted into products by a strander, and the prestressed steel strand needs to be stabilized continuously after forming. The final product is generally collected on the I-shaped wheel or completed as a reel less
Steel strand China market
At present, the production bases of steel strand are mainly in Tianjin, Jiangsu, Hebei and Henan, which account for 70% of the total output of the country. Tianjin has obvious location advantages, and the logistics in the center of the North-South channel is more convenient, which can easily radiate Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and northeast provinces. Due to the development of Tianjin strand industry cluster, B steel production of iron and steel enterprises in the region is driven, and Rongcheng steel and Aosen steel provide sufficient raw material supply in the region. Manufacturers along the Yangtze River mainly radiate to Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Fujian and Guangdong, benefiting from the developed inland water network transportation and low freight. There are Shagang, Yonggang, Wuhu Xinxing and other manufacturers in the area as raw material suppliers with sufficient supply.
According to Mysteel’s statistics, there are 54 sample steel strand manufacturers in total, with a total output of 5.6756 million tons in 2017, of which nearly 50% are concentrated in North China; the second is East China, accounting for 25% and central China, accounting for 12%; the third is Tianjin, with a total of 20 sample steel strand manufacturers, with a regional output of 2.37 million tons in 2017, ranking first in China, accounting for 42%; and Next, Jiangsu accounted for 12% and Hebei for 8%. Overall, the region is highly concentrated in North China, followed by East China, but with the construction of national projects, the southwest and northwest regions will be the key development areas in the future.
Future market of strand steel
With the continuous breakthrough of technical barriers in China’s steel strand industry and the involvement of a large number of private capital, the proportion of private enterprises continues to rise. In 2018, the industry expects that China’s new steel strand capacity will be about 400000, and the effective capacity will reach 6 million at the end of the year. In the future, the competition in the industry market will be particularly fierce, in which the large manufacturers and brand manufacturers occupy the high-end market through their own brand advantages and long-term customer resource advantages established through cooperation, while some private manufacturers adopt regional sales mode and low-cost cash sales to compete, resulting in the increase of many steel strand manufacturers’ output and the decrease of profits, or even losses. Therefore, the future market urgently needs the supervision and coordination mechanism.
Although airbrush makeup has been around for decades, it became popular only a few years ago. You can find a lot of differences between the traditional makeup and airbrush makeup. Both of them has their pros and cons. In this article, we are going to take a look at the difference between airbrush makeup and others.
Airbrush Makeup Vs. Regular Makeup
This type of makeup is applied with an air compressor and airbrush stylus. The air compressor is like the one used to apply spray tans. Typically, it’s applied on a small scale in the form of mist. So, the product should be thinner than the regular foundation.
Although air brush makeup is thinner, it’s a great choice to cover flaws and imperfections. And you will still look natural as the same time your skin will still be able to breathe. In other words, with this type of makeup kit, your skin will look natural and professional.
Traditional makeup is the regular makeup that most people wear. It refers to products in the form of powder, cream, or liquid. They are applied with the help of fingers, sponges, or brushes. Typically, the products are thicker but you can choose from a lot of variations.
The Benefits Of Airbrush Makeup
As said earlier, airbrush makeup kits cost a bit more than regular kits. However, these products stand the test of time. Therefore, with the passage of time, these kits can help you save a lot of money. Aside from this, these kits can stay with you for years. So, you don’t have to spend money in order to buy a new kit.
One of the main benefits of an airbrush makeup kit is that they are quite hygienic. Thus, there is no need to touch the product as you will be using the stylus to do the job. So, you can keep bacteria, oil and dirt away from your skin. This product is an ideal choice for people whose skin is more prone to breakouts. On the other hand, traditional makeup requires you to use your fingers, sponges and brushes. Also, the stylus is easy to clean. All you need to do is flush and wipe. Some kits also come with a cleaning solution that you can buy separately.
3.Natural and Healthy Appearance
The makeup mist looks natural unlike the traditional kits. There will be no smudges or brush marks on your skin. Since the makeup is done in light layers, you won’t have the caked-on look.
4.Breathable and Lightweight
According to most users, these kits feel very light. On the other hand, regular kits feel thicker and greasy. It’s best for your skin as well because it lets your skin breathe and there will be no blockage of your pores. So, if you have acne-prone or sensitive skin, you can use this product without any worries.
So, these are some major benefits of using airbrush makeup kits. If you want to enjoy these benefits, we suggest that you opt for these kits.
The occasional online buyers searching to purchase auto parts cheaply will mostly likely first consider, “Used parts are cheaper.” What’s sad about this thought is that this potential buyer probably doesn’t know about the auto part’s previous owner; under what circumstance and from which country it ended up at the store, and the potential it might put buyers safety at risk. Certainly, “used” means “affordable,” however it better safe than sorry.
My reasons are as follows.
1. Used auto parts are usually recovered from abandoned, or crashed automobiles, and researches indicate that these components demand the highest probability of replacement and repair. Unintentionally equipping a faulty part from a destroyed vehicle may not just affect reliability. Based on your auto part, your safety, performance and other parameters could be changed and go unexpected.
2. It’s almost impossible to have used auto parts adequately tested. Almost no agencies, government or otherwise, supervise used auto part inspection. While some do perform, finding out a middleman is likely an effort you’ll should resist to buy. Instead, you can concentrate your goal on looking for affordable auto parts instead; they are always brand new, properly tested and easy to use.
3. The most popular used auto parts are also the most safety vulnerable. The most cost prohibitive auto parts, are those that are the most adequately inspected at reduced prices. These components are generally mini, critical parts. Replacing them with displaced, unchecked, reconfigured or recycled parts pose the greatest danger to your life, given their significance to the over all reliability of your automobile. For instance, even though a cheap air conditioner can conveniently be bought second handed, these are usually not costly anyway. A universal rule of thumb is that the cheaper the part, the more danger there is revealed by discounted service.
4. Junk yard don’t guarantee functionality. While suitable for external parts like windshield and doors, internal parts can shift in functionality from yard to yard and inspecting safety just isn’t a solution. Car accidents resulting from problematic parts waste more money than conveniently buying new parts at a more expensive rate.
So what’s the possible solution? Purchase new auto parts at discount prices.
Here are a few ways of discovering cheap automobile components online without sacrificing reliability or durability:
Check out online discount retailers
By reducing prepayment and dropping profit margins, online auto part retailers can lower prices on unused auto parts in order to stay popular. These retailers manage what are labeled “discount stores.” Even if an online store isn’t named after “discount,” if the price of new parts is reasonable, it’s an easy win that “discount” in this situation doesn’t equal dangerous.
Discount sellers generally operate on the internet because doing so drastically reduces cost, letting them to sell reliable auto parts at low prices.
Look for wholesalers
Many web stores run as dealers for the oversea manufacturer, and these stores will raise prices for profit. You can bypass web dealers as you wish when searching for discount automobile parts by Google auto parts wholesalers on the internet. The majority trustworthy wholesalers will have a website, showing you series of product, cheaper prices, ease of searching, and quick shipping. Make sure to exercise precaution before paying. Consult with customer service directly if available.