Feed additives refer to small or trace substances added in the process of feed production, processing and use. The amount of feed additives is small but the effect is significant. Feed additives are inevitable raw materials used in the modern feed industry, and have obvious effects on strengthening the nutritional value of basic feeds, improving animal production performance, ensuring animal health, saving feed costs, and improving the quality of animal products.
Introduction of feed additives
Feed additives are divided into microbial feed additives and Chinese herbal medicine feed additives. Among them, the microbial feed additive is a microbial product that replaces or balances one or more bacterial systems in animal ecosystems.
Main type of feed additives
1. Bile acid
Longchang bile acid is the main active ingredient of bile. In the circulation of liver and intestines, it combines with fatty acids, emulsifies fats, and forms fat-soluble complexes with fatty acids, allowing fatty acids to be absorbed through the membrane. Digestion and absorption have been completed. All biochemical reactions in the body, especially enzymatic reactions, are carried out in an aqueous solution, so the fat can only enter the fatty acid digestion process if it is emulsified and forms a fatty acid-emulsifier complex. Because the hepatointestinal circulation is not a completely closed circulation, the lack of endogenous emulsifier secretion becomes the biggest factor affecting the digestion and absorption of fat. Feed grade bile acid is a high-performance fat emulsifier. It can improve the activity of endogenous emulsifier, make up for the deficiency of endogenous emulsifier secretion, and thus release the potential energy of feed. It can promote the digestion and absorption of fat, protect the liver and gallbladder, improve the health of livestock and poultry, and increase the utilization rate of feed.
Including citric acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and compound acidifier, etc. Adding the right amount of acidification to the pig diet can significantly increase the daily weight gain of the pig and reduce the feeding cost.
3. Calcium formate
As a feed additive, calcium formate is particularly suitable for weaned piglets. It can affect the growth of intestinal microbes, activate pepsinogen, increase the energy utilization of natural metabolites, improve feed conversion rate, prevent diarrhea and diarrhea, and improve the survival rate of piglets. And the rate of daily weight gain. At the same time, feed grade calcium formate also has the effect of preventing mildew and keeping fresh. Adding calcium formate to the feed will release a small amount of formic acid in the animal body, which will reduce the PH value of the gastrointestinal tract, and has a buffering effect, which is conducive to the stability of the PH value in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby inhibiting the reproduction of harmful bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial microorganisms. For example, the growth of Lactobacillus can cover the intestinal mucosa from toxin invasion, so as to control and prevent the diarrhoea and diarrhea related to bacteria from occurring. The added amount is generally 1-1.5%. Calcium formate is used as an acidulant. Compared with citric acid, it does not deliquesce in the process of feed production. It has good fluidity and a neutral PH value. It does not cause equipment corrosion. Adding it directly to the feed can prevent nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. Destruction is an ideal feed acidifier.
Main Application of feed additives
The digestive tract of chickens is relatively short, and the intestinal mucosal barrier is fragile. Under intensive aquaculture conditions, it is more susceptible to harmful microorganisms than long digestive tract animals, resulting in various diseases. The use of feed additives is one of the effective means to prevent intestinal diseases and improve the production performance of broilers and laying hens. The growth rate of broilers is fast, and it is greatly affected by the environment in intensive production. The application of feed additives can improve the balance of intestinal flora, reduce the incidence and mortality of intestinal diseases, increase the weight of slaughter, reduce the ratio of feed to meat, and can reduce Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other harmful gas emissions in the chicken house improve product quality. The application of feed additives in laying hen breeding, in addition to preventing diseases, improving production performance and feed remuneration, also has an improving effect on egg quality. Studies have shown that adding feed additives to laying hen diets can increase the Hastelloy unit of the egg, reduce the cholesterol content of the egg, and has the effects of improving the thickness of the egg shell and reducing soft-shell eggs.
Current research and application shows that feed additives have achieved good application results in the breeding of piglets, sows and fattening pigs. Adding feed additives to piglet diets can promote piglet intestinal development, improve intestinal health, reduce diarrhea rate, increase piglet growth rate and feed conversion rate. For suckling piglets, the addition of feed additives helps to establish the predominant flora of probiotics; for weaned piglets, it can improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and growth inhibition due to factors such as their own digestive enzyme secretion and dietary antigenicity. Studies have shown that the use of feed additives in sow diets can improve intestinal health, improve sow immunity and reproductive performance. After adding feed additives, it can improve the ability to regulate the balance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, increase the intake of sows during lactation, suppress weight loss, increase the fat and protein content of sow milk, improve the survival rate of weaned piglets and weaned piglets body weight. Adding feed additives to fattening pig diets can increase feed intake and feed conversion rate, improve health, shorten fattening periods, and improve quality and reduce environmental pollution. Studies have shown that the addition of feed additives can reduce the diarrhea rate of fattening pigs, improve immunity, increase feed intake and feed digestibility, thereby improving diet utilization and reducing feed-to-meat ratio. In addition, feed additives have a certain promoting effect on increasing intramuscular fat and increasing the content of essential fatty acids, which can improve the quality of pork.
3. Aquatic products
The application of feed additives in aquatic products is reflected in two aspects: bait and water purification. Feed additives can improve the micro-ecological balance of aquatic animals, promote growth and development, play a role in preventing diseases and improving production performance. Probiotics can be colonized in the intestines of fish, promote the growth and development of fish, and improve disease resistance. Feed additives can reduce the incidence of shrimp and increase survival rate and yield. Feed additives can be used as immune stimulants and adjuvants for aquatic animals, promote the development of immune organs, improve humoral immunity, and improve immune function. This effect has been verified in a variety of aquatic animals. Photosynthetic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria in feed additives can consume organic matter in water, remove ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrous nitrogen, etc. It is an important beneficial microorganism currently used to improve the aquaculture environment. It is used in aquatic animals such as shrimp and flounder. Good application results are obtained in breeding.